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TermDefinition
draught the vertical distance measured from the lowest point of a ship's hull to the waterline or the water surface

compare air draught
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TermDefinition
air draught the vertical distance measured from the ship's waterline to the highest point on the ship; usually comes into consideration when the ship has to sail under overhead bridges in the river

compare draught
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ballast any weight in solid or liquid form taken on a ship to increase draught, to change trim, or to improve the stability; use of sea water is common
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bar 1. sand or silt forming a bank across the mouth of a river or harbour entrance; this build-up reduces the water depth and limits the draught of a ship which can cross it

2. of unit, 1 bar is equal to 1 atmosphere in pressure, i.e. 101.3 kpa
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bar draught maximum draught which a ship can take to pass over a bar or sand bank
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block coefficient the ratio of the underwater volume of a ship to the volume of a rectangular block having the length, breadth and draught of the ship

    CB =  immersed volume 
                   L x B x H
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deadweight total weight of cargo, stores, fuel and water needed to submerge a ship from her light draught to her maximum permitted draught; it is given by the difference between the load displacement and light displacement (also known as lightweight); DWT for short
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design draught draught as used for design calculation before actual construction, which has a tendency to distort the final reading
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draught marks figures welded on the bow, midship and stern of each side of a ship's shell plating to indicate draught; the distance is read from the lower edge of each number; draught measured at the bow is called forward draught and at the stern is called aft draught
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draught survey survey carried out to determine the cargo weight on board by measuring the ship's draught
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Dunkerquemax describe a class of bulk carrier whose maximum length overall is typically 292m, beam 45m, scantling draught 18m and deadweight about 176,000 to 180,000.
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extreme draught draught measured to the lowest projecting portion of a ship
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forced draught combustion air for boiler furnace supplied under pressure from a forced draught fan
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gale ballast ballast sea water which is taken in the cargo holds or tanks of a large bulk carrier or oil tanker when it is sailing in a ballast voyage; this increases its draught and hence improves its stability when sailing through a heavy weather
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hydrostatic curves a set of curves which plot the hydrostatic quantities such as displacement, centre of flotation, centre of buoyancy, transverse metacentre, etc against the draught; these curves are useful for quick assessment of the draughts and the initial stability in various loading conditions
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keel cooler cooler designed to be built into the keel with the cooling water coming from the sea water flowing underneath the keel; generally used in vessels with shallow design draught for sailing in river, etc.
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Laker a ship capable of transiting the St. Lawrence Seaway locks to trade in the Great Lakes between USA and Canada; the maximum beam and draught allowed in the lock is approximately 23.15 m and 26 feet fresh water respectively - this is equivalent to ship with a deadweight of about 20,000 tons
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lightship draught draught when ship is empty and deadweight is zero
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load lines the lines which are marked and painted amidships on each side of a ship to indicate the maximum permissible draughts of loading adjusted for various seasons and zones; also known as Plimsoll marks, so named after Samuel Plimsoll, a British Member of Parliament who introduced and promoted its widespread use in 1875

TF: Tropical Fresh water line; F: Summer Fresh water line; T: tropical load water line; S: Summer load water line; W: Winter line; WNA: Winter North Atlantic Line; the letters beside the circular marks indicate the assigning authority, e.g. AB refers to American Bureau of Shipping, etc.
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Malaccamax describe a maximum hull form capable of transiting the Straits of Malacca fully loaded; the maximum draught and beam allowed in the strait is approximately 21 metres and 60 metres respectively with a deadweight of 280,000~300,000 tons or in terms of TEU, not exceeding 12,000
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mean draught the average of forward and aft draughts of a ship
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midship section coefficient the ratio of the midship section area of the underwater body of a ship to the rectangular area having the breadth and draught of the section; also known as midship coefficient

    CM =  midship section area 
                      B x T
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multi-cat a multi-purpose work vessel in the offshore industry which is built with a simple rectangular pontoon hull and a long open foredeck resembling a small pusher tug; its shallow draught is suitable for marine construction and harbour work
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Newcastlemax describe a class of bulk carrier whose maximum length overall is typically 300m, beam 55m, scantling draught 16.1m and deadweight about 205,000.

Formerly its size is only 185,000 deadweight; however this is superseded by Kooragang berths 2, 5, 8 and 9 which accept up to 210,000 deadweight vessels.
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Panamax describe a class of ship size with the maximum dimension capable of transiting the Panama Canal; the maximum beam and draught allowed in the canal is approximately 32.3 metres and 12 metres fresh water respectively.

In the 80s and 90s the deadweight is about 55,000 to 60,000. With the increase in width and length of Panama Locks, the Panamax is now re-defined as 80,000 deadweight bulker.
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Post Panamax describe a vessel whose size does not allow it to transit Panama Canal unlike Panamax vessel; maximum size of this class built has a length overall, beam and draught of approximately 300 metres, 43 metres and 14.5 metres respectively
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scantling draught the maximum draught which meets the strength requirements; this is usually used when the draught corresponding to the freeboard computed according to the Load Line Convention is greater
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Setouchmax describe a class of bulk carrier whose maximum length overall is typically 300m, beam 50m, scantling draught 16.1m and deadweight about 205,000.
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SSW Summer Salt Water, it refers to the draught of the ship in salt water when it is loaded to its summer loadline in the open sea
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subdivision load line waterline used to determine the subdivision of vessel for compliance with SOLAS ; the deepest subdivision load line is the waterline which corresponds to the greatest draught permitted by subdivision requirements
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Suezmax a large tanker capable of transiting the Suez Canal fully loaded; the maximum draught allowed in the canal is approximately 52 feet 6 inches salt water - this is equivalent to about 150,000 deadweight
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summer draught the maximum permissible draught to which the ship may be immersed when arriving at any port located in the summer zone
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tonnes per centimetre immersion number of tonnes required to change the draught of the vessel by one centimetre at a given draught; TPC for short; this is the metric equivalent to tons per inch immersion
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tons per inch immersion number of tons required to change the draught of the vessel by one inch at a given draught; TPI for short; this is the non-metric equivalent to tonnes per centimetre immersion
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trim indicates the difference between the forward and after draughts of a ship; when a ship is said to "trim by stern", the after end of the ship is deeper and when "trim by head", the ship is deeper in the forward end
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waterline the line at a ship's side formed by the surface of water at a specific draught
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