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TermDefinition
piston of diesel engine, a cylindrical metallic block with a few grooves cut around the circumference at the top edge; acting together with the piston rings in the grooves, it serves to seal the compressed intake air and combustion gases in the cylinder above it and transmit the expanding gas forces downward to turn the engine via the connecting rod
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compressor machine for compressing a gas (e.g. air or refrigerant gas) to increase its pressure; compression may be achieved by mechanically reducing the gaseous volume using reciprocating piston in a cylinder or by using centrifugal force to impart energy to the gas

see air compressor, reefer compressor, turbocharger
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connecting rod a rod connecting lower end of piston rod with crank pin of a reciprocating diesel engine
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crankshaft shaft that supports reciprocating pistons while rotating in bearings as in a diesel engine; consists of journals, crank webs and crankpins
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crosshead a rectangular block which connects and acts as a hinge between the lower end of piston rod and the upper end of connecting rod in an engine; at its athwartship faces, it carries guide shoes which transmit the side thrust of the connecting rod to the guides on the columns
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cylinder round, tubular chamber in which a piston reciprocates
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four-stroke cycle the cycle of operation completes in two revolutions of the crankshaft, ie air intake or suction on downward stroke of piston, followed by compression on upward stroke, firing & expansion on next downward stroke, and finally exhaust on the upward stroke again; the complete cycle is done on four separate strokes of the engine piston

compare two-stroke cycle
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gudgeon pin horizontal pin by means of which a piston is attached freely to a connecting rod in a diesel engine
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heat engine device that converts heat into work, e.g. a heated, expanding gas enclosed in a cylinder moving a piston
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impingement describes a condition during injection, whereby excessive velocity of fuel spray causes fuel to contact diesel engine's piston crown and liner with possible localised burning
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lands of piston, the vertical surfaces between the piston rings and also of the piston crown
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liner 1. refers to a ship calling same ports regularly;

2. renewable metallic sleeve inserted in a cylinder and designed to take the wearing action of a reciprocating piston
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opposed piston engine internal combustion diesel engine having two pistons moving in opposite direction in each cylinder; suction, compression, expansion and exhaust occurs between the two pistons
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piston crown upper section of a two-piece piston; the upper surface facing the combustion space is either concave or convex which is self-supporting, i.e. rigid enough to withstand the repetitive combustion forces without giving way; the piston is usually made in two sections for diesel engine with higher power output

see piston skirt
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piston skirt lower section of a two-piece piston; the piston is usually made in two sections for diesel engine with higher power output

see piston crown
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positive displacement pump one broad category of pump designed to positively displaced liquid from the suction to the discharge side by mechanical variation of the volume; it is characterised by its self-priming action; examples of such pump are reciprocating pumps using piston or plunger in a cylinder, and rotary pumps using gear, screw or vane to force the liquid through
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slagging forming of hard deposits on boiler tubes or piston crowns due to high quantity of sodium and vanadium in the fuel used
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stuffing box a short sleeve with a bore in the centre through which a piston rod passes; pressure tightness between the rod and the sleeve is obtained by compressing packing or fibrous material with a retaining gland; used in machinery to prevent escape of steam or water
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two-stroke cycle the cycle of operation completes in one revolution of the crankshaft, ie air intake and compression is done on the upward stroke of the piston, and expansion and exhaust is done on the downward stroke

compare four-stroke cycle
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